Border Gateway Function 6.5 to 11.1.1
SmartEdge Routers






General Impact
3.1Configurations and Roles


4.2Terms and Expressions

Reference List

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The contents of this document are subject to revision without notice due to continued progress in methodology, design and manufacturing. Ericsson shall have no liability for any error or damage of any kind resulting from the use of this document.

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1   Introduction

1.1   Purpose

The document provides sufficient early information to users of the SmartEdge Border Gateway Function to enable them to plan the upgrade from release 6.5 to 11.1.1, and also provides a general description of the differences between the releases.

1.2   Scope

Included in this document is a general description of the differences between release 6.5 and 11.1.1 of the SmartEdge BGF to inform you of possible actions required for other network components.

This document provides no detailed information regarding the functionality of the SmartEdge BGF; refer to SmartEdge Border Gateway Function Survey, Reference [2] for a detailed description of the SmartEdge BGF release 11.1.1.

1.3   Audience

The audience of this document is personnel who require overview information about the impact on the existing network when replacing SmartEdge BGF release 6.5 with 11.1.1. This audience includes the following:

2   Overview

The SmartEdge BGF enables the router to function as a session-aware device that provides security and service assurance for multimedia telephony traffic such as voice, video, and multimedia messaging. In the Ericsson IP multimedia Subsystem (IMS) network solution, the SmartEdge BGF and the Ericsson Session Border Gateway (SBG) compose the Ericsson Distributed Session Border Controller (D-SBC). For example, see Figure 1.

Figure 1   Logical Position of D-SBC and SmartEdge BGF in IMS or Other Multimedia Networks

The BGF handles the multimedia user plane traffic and is controlled by the SBG using the ITU-T H.248 protocol.

The BGF is a one-subrack solution. It includes two redundant XCRP4 processor cards and up to 12 line cards, depending on the hardware configuration deployed. The XCRP4 cards are the controller cards—one active and one standby. Only PPA2 and PPA3 line cards are supported. Line cards can be any combination of:

The SmartEdge BGF implements a grid of cross-connections in its backplane that allows a traffic card to communicate directly with any other traffic card in the chassis. Media can flow directly between two line cards without affecting the XCRPs.

3   General Impact

3.1   Configurations and Roles

As in earlier releases, the 11.1.1 release of the SmartEdge BGF application is used in two scenarios:

In addition to a BGF, the SmartEdge system can simultaneously function as a generic router and a Broadband Remote Access Server (BRAS).

The BGF application is supported only on SmartEdge 600 and SmartEdge 1200 hardware configurations. Both hardware configurations have the same maximum simultaneous sessions and session setup capacity.

3.2   Hardware

Release 11.1.1 supports the same hardware as 6.5.

3.3   Characteristics

There are no significant changes in the characteristics for Release 11.1.1 compared to 6.5. For more information on the traffic model used and the characteristics, refer Node Characteristics and Dimensioning Specification, Reference [1].

3.4   Interface

The media inactivity timestamp is passed from BGF to the SGC using a new optional statistics parameter eri_seco/mstime defined in the eri_seco package, version 5. The BGF reports on the media inactivity timestamp at the granularity of 1 second using the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) format (yyyymmddThhmmssssZ).

3.5   Operation

3.5.1   Performance Management

No change in this release.

3.5.2   Alarms

No change in this release.

3.5.3   Events

No change in this release.

3.5.4   Counters

No change in this release.

3.6   Features

3.6.1   Removed Features

No features have been removed.

3.6.2   Changed and Enhanced Features

Media inactivity detection feature is enhanced in this release to report the inactivity timestamp as part of statistics.

IPv4 to IPv6 conversion supports Zero UDP checksum packets.   Security

No change in this release.   Memory

No significant change in this release.   Capacity

No change in this release.   Other Nodes

No impact on other nodes.

3.6.3   Operation   Configuration Commands

The following new configuration commands are added for bulkstats:

(config)# bulkstats schema profile <profile-type> <profile-name> format <quoted-format-string> [<attribute1>] [<attribute2>][...]

(config)# bulkstats schema profile media-gateway {global | mgc-group} <profile-name>

(config-ctx)# bulkstats policy <policy-name>

(config-mg)# bulkstats schema <profile-name> policy <policy-name> [<context-name>]   Diagnostics and Monitoring Commands

No change in this release.

3.6.4   Statistics

Statistics counters are supported through bulkstats.

3.6.5   New features

The following new functions are added:

For more information on these features, refer to SmartEdge Border Gateway Function Survey, Reference [2].

4   Terminology

4.1   Acronyms

3GPP 3rd Generation Partnership Project
A-ALG Access Application Level Gateway
AS Application Server
B2BUA Back-to-Back User Agent
BGF Border Gateway Function
BRAS Broadband Remote Access Server
C-BGF Core Border Gateway Function
CLI Command Line Interface
CSCF Call Session Control Function
D-SBC Distributed SBC
DoS Denial of Service
DSCP Differentiated Services Code Point
DTMF Dual Tone Multi-Frequency
ED1 External Delivery 1
ED2 External Delivery 2
ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute
FW Firewall
HNT Hosted NAT/FW Traversal
HSS Home Subscriber Server
I-BGF Interconnection Border Gateway
IBCF Interconnection Border Control Function
IMS IP Multimedia Subsystem
IP Internet Protocol
IP-PBX IP Private Branch Exchange
IS Integrated Site
ITU-T International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector
IVR Interactive Voice Response
MG Media Gateway
MRFC Media Resource Function Controller
MRFP Media Resource Function Processor
NAPT Network Address and Port Translation
NAT Network Address Translation
NW Network
OLC Open Logical Channel
OS Operating System
PSTN Public Switched Telephone Network
QoS Quality of Service
RADIUS Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service
RFC Request For Comments
RTCP RTP Control Protocol
RTP Real Time Protocol
SBC Session Border Controller
SBG Session Border Gateway
SCTP Stream Control Transport Protocol
SDP Session Description Protocol
SGC Session Gateway Controller
SIP Session Initiation Protocol
SLA Service Level Agreement
SME Small Medium Enterprise
SPDF Service Policy Decision Function
TACACS+ Terminal Access Control Access Control System Plus
TCP Transport Control Protocol
TISPAN Telecoms & Internet converged Services & Protocols for Advanced Networks
UAS User Agent Server
UDP User Datagram Protocol
UDPTL UDP Transport Layer
UE User Equipment
vMG Virtual MG
VoIP Voice over IP
VPN Virtual Private Network

4.2   Terms and Expressions

Access Application Level Gateway SIP B2BUA placed between UEs and an external P-CSCF offloading the IMS core network by providing parts of the P-CSCF functions as well as a number of additional services.
Access Network Fixed broadband access network to which residential and enterprise users with SIP equipment as well as SIP and H.323 IP-PBXs are connected. Private overlapping address spaces can be used in access networks. In this document, the term access network also includes aggregation networks.
Back-to-Back User Agent In the SBG architecture, the function that terminates SIP signaling from one network and, after modifying incoming messages, originates signaling to another network. The B2BUA function also performs media anchoring and controls the dynamic pinhole firewall.
Border Gateway Function Packet-to-packet gateway providing dynamic pinhole firewall functionality for media plane traffic. It is defined by TISPAN in Reference [3].
Core Network Central part of a multimedia network including, for example, databases, SIP servers, media servers, and media gateways. See also IMS Core Network.
Dynamic Pinhole Firewall SBG term for the function that, under control of a B2BUA on a per-media-stream basis, opens and closes pinholes for media (audio, video, and fax) over IP. This process is known as media flow gating.
Early Media According to RFC 3959 (Reference [3]) "Early media refers to media (for example, audio and video) that is exchanged before a particular session is accepted by the called user. Within a dialog, early media occurs from the moment the initial INVITE is sent until the User Agent Server (UAS) generates a final response. It may be unidirectional or bidirectional, and can be generated by the caller, the callee, or both. Typical examples of early media generated by the callee are ringing tone and announcements (for example, queuing status). Early media generated by the caller typically consists of voice commands or dual tone multi-frequency (DTMF) tones to drive interactive voice response (IVR) systems."
Foreign Network Another network portion in a carrier's network or another carrier’s network. The foreign network can either be a trusted SIP network, an untrusted SIP network, or an H.323 network.
IMS Core Network The central part of the IMS network architecture including, for example, databases (HSS), SIP call/session servers (CSCF), application servers (AS), media resource functions (MRFC and MRFP), and PSTN gateways. An IMS core network is typically separated from access networks (where users reside) and other operator’s IP multimedia networks by means of an SBG.
Interconnection Border Control Function Controls SIP traffic between the IMS core network and foreign networks. It is defined by TISPAN in Reference [5] and 3GPP in Reference [6].
Latching A method to obtain the IP address and port used by the NAT on behalf of a user behind the NAT. The source address and port of the first packet received from that user is used for sending packets to the user and for the dynamic pinhole firewall when accepting packets from that user.
Media IP traffic containing audio, video, fax, and so on. Some packets not containing actual payload (for example, RTCP packets or TCP segments for connection establishment) are considered media because they are prerequisites for or closely coupled to the payload.
Media Anchoring Forcing media to take a certain path by altering source or destination address and port in SDP or OLC in H.245. In the SBG, this is done by the B2BUA, which forces the media streams to pass the media pinhole firewall.
Media Flow Gating The process of the SBG opening and closing pinholes for media (audio, video, fax, and so on) over IP on a per-media-stream basis. The media part of the function performing this task is known as dynamic pinhole firewall
Media Plane In this document, the traffic between users or IMS core network nodes containing media.
Pinhole A set of criteria defining a media stream admitted through the firewall. The criteria include local IP address and port, direction of media, and transport protocol, and may include remote IP address and port for media source filtering and bandwidth for policing.
Service-based Policy Decision Function A function that decides which media streams are allowed to be set up and the characteristics of the streams. The function requests resources from media plane entities. It is defined by TISPAN in Reference [3]. The BGF is controlled by the SPDF entity in the SGC.
Session Border Gateway An Ericsson IS-based product that acts as a gateway between IP Multimedia networks. The SBG ensures security, topology hiding, quality of service, service level agreements, NAT/FW traversal, address translation, and other critical functions for real-time IP streams. The SBG consists of the SGC and MP IS application blade systems.
Session Gateway Controller An IS application blade system containing the B2BUA function and optionally the SIP/H.323 interworking function of the SBG. The SGC contains the SPDF, which controls the BGF.
Topology Hiding A way to prevent all information regarding IP addresses used in one network from being forwarded in signaling messages to another network.
User Any entity (for example, a person) that uses IMS features through user equipment (UE). The term user is sometimes also used more widely, including both the UE and the entity using the services.
User Equipment A device allowing a user access to network services. Defined in 3GPP TR 21.905 (Reference [7]).

Reference List

Ericsson Internal Documents
[1] Node Characteristics and Dimensioning Specification, 3/109 48-CXS 101 399/1 Uen
[2] SmartEdge Border Gateway Function Survey, 155 13-CRA 119 1170/1 Uen
Other Documents
[3] Telecommunications and Internet converged Services and Protocols for Advanced Networking (TISPAN); Resource and Admission Control: H.248 Profile for controlling Border Gateway Functions (BGF) in the Resource and Admission Control Subsystem (RACS); Protocol specification, ETSI TISPAN ES 283 018 v2.5.0 (2008-11)
[4] The Early Session Disposition Type for the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP), RFC 3959.
[5] IP Multimedia Call Control Protocol based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Session Description Protocol (SDP) Stage 3 [3GPP TS 24.229 (Release 7), modified], ETSI ES 283 003.
[6] Technical Specification Group Core Network and Terminals; IP multimedia call control protocol based on Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) and Session Description Protocol (SDP); Stage 3 (Release 7), 3GPP TS 24.229.
[7] Technical Specification Group Services and System Aspects; Vocabulary for 3GPP Specifications, 3GPP TR 21.905.