SmartEdge System Description

Contents

1Overview
1.1Scope
1.2Audience

2

Introduction

3

SmartEdge Use Cases
3.1Layer 2 Network
3.2Layer 3 Network
3.3BNG Solutions
3.4Other Ericsson Solutions

4

Features
4.1Routing
4.2BNG Features
4.3IP Protocol Support
4.4IP Services
4.5IP Service Policies
4.6Quality of Service
4.7Application Traffic Management

5

System Architecture

6

Router Components
6.1SmartEdge OS
6.2Contexts
6.3Interfaces
6.4Ports, Channels, and Circuits
6.5Cross-Connections
6.6Bindings
6.7Bridges
6.8Tunnels

7

System Processes
7.1Independent System Processes
7.2SmartEdge OS Processes
7.3Layer 2 Processes
7.4BNG Processes
7.5Routing Processes
7.6Forwarding Process
7.7System Redundancy and Synchronization

8

User Interface
8.1Command Modes and Prompts
8.2Command Mode Hierarchy
8.3Privilege Levels
8.4No and Default Forms of Commands

9

Administration
9.1Managing Security
9.2Managing Performance
9.3Monitoring, Reporting, and Troubleshooting Tools

1   Overview

This document describes the SmartEdge® router, and its usage, services, and architecture.

1.1   Scope

This description covers the logical and functional aspects of the product, but does not describe the hardware. For information about SmartEdge hardware, see the SmartEdge Hardware Library.

1.2   Audience

This document is intended to introduce the router to anyone who is not familiar with the platform.

2   Introduction

The SmartEdge multiservice edge routers (MSERs) combine multiple functionalities into a single platform that provides Layer 3 (IP) edge routing, Layer 2 (Ethernet) network aggregation, broadband network gateway (BNG) services for subscribers, and other advanced services.

The SmartEdge services provide carrier-class reliability, scalability and performance, have minimal power requirements, and include the following:

The router can be used in solutions that combine Layer 2, Layer 3, and BNG solutions.

Using the router in conjunction with other Ericsson solutions requires the following composite implementations:

For a description of each of these solutions, including diagrams and the configuration requirements, see Layer 2 Network, Layer 3 Network, BNG solutions, and SmartEdge Router in Other Ericsson Solutions.

Figure 1 illustrates the possible combinations and where other Ericsson solutions fit with the router.

Figure 1   Possible Service Combinations

3   SmartEdge Use Cases

3.1   Layer 2 Network

The router can be used to provide services for Ethernet traffic such as the following:

Figure 2 illustrates the router in a Layer 2 network.

Figure 2   Layer 2 Network

Table 1 lists the features that can be configured for Layer 2 solutions.

Table 1    Features Configured for Layer 2 Solutions

Business Application

L2 Transport Method

Routing and Forwarding Options

Services

Integrated Metro Ethernet and BNG

L2VPN VLL


L2VPN VPLS

LDP or RSVP


ISIS or OSPF

IPoE over PW

Metro Ethernet backhaul

L2 bridging

Pure bridging

QoS


MAC rate-limiting


MAC filtering

L2 XC

Ethernet-to-Ethernet


Ethernet-to-ATM Bridge1483


Ethernet-to-ATM Route1483

QoS

L2VPN VLL

One of the following combinations:


LDP, ISIS


LDP, OSPF


RSVP, ISIS


RSVP, OSPF

QoS

L2VPN VPLS or H-VPLS

One of the following combinations:


T-LDP(FEC Dist), LDP, ISIS


T-LDP (FEC Dist), LDP, OSPF


T-LDP( FEC Dist), RSVP-TE, ISIS


T-LDP( FEC Dist), RSVP-TE, OSPF


BGP, LDP, ISIS


BGP, LDP, OSPF


BGP, RSVP-TE, ISIS


BGP, RSVP-TE, OSPF

QoS


Multicast services


MAC filtering


MAC rate-limiting

3.2   Layer 3 Network

The router can be used in many IP topologies, including networks providing the following L3VPN services:

Figure 3 illustrates the router in a Layer 3 network.

Figure 3   Layer 3 Network

Table 2 lists the features that can be configured for Layer 3 solutions.

Table 2    Features Configured For Layer 3 Solutions

Business Application

Access Options

Routing Options

Services

Integrated BNG/L3VPN

PTA


L2TP


CLIPS


DHCP


Static Circuits

One of the following combinations:


BGP, MPLS, LDP, ISIS


BGP, MPLS, LDP, OSPF


BGP, MPLS, RSVP-TE, ISIS


BGP, MPLS, RSVP-TE, OSPF


BGP, MPLS, LDP over 1-hop RSVP, ISIS


BGP, MPLS, LDP over 1-hop RSVP, OSPF

QoS


CE-PE Routing Options


Route Filters

Backhaul Applications Such as MPBN

Static Circuits

One of the following combinations:


BGP, MPLS, LDP, ISIS


BGP, MPLS, LDP, OSPF


BGP, MPLS, RSVP-TE, ISIS


BGP, MPLS, RSVP-TE, OSPF


BGP, MPLS, LDP over 1-hop RSVP, ISIS


BGP/, MPLS, LDP over 1-hop RSVP, OSPF

QoS

3.3   BNG Solutions

The router can provide the following BNG services:

Figure 4 illustrates the router in a network providing BNG services.

Figure 4   SmartEdge Router With BNG Solutions

Table 3 lists the features that can be configured for BNG solutions.

Table 3    Features Configured for BNG Solutions

Business Application

Access Technology

Transport Options

Services

PTA

PPPoE

Single and double VLANs, CCOD, link groups

ACL


QoS


HTTP-Red


LI


VoIP


Multicast applications


NAT


Flow services

ML PPPoE

Single and double VLANs, CCOD

PPPoEoA

ATM PVCs, ATM APS, CCOD

PPPoA

ATM PVC, ATM APS, CCOD

ML PPPoA

ATM PVC, ATM APS

L2TP

LAC

Single and double VLANs, CCOD, link groups, ATM PVC, ATM APS

ACL


QoS


HTTP-Red


LI


VoIP


Multicast applications


NAT


Flow services

LTS

Routed IP, ECMP IP, link groups, MPLS

LNS

Routed IP, ECMP IP, link groups, MPLS

MLPPP/LNS

Routed IP, ECMP IP, link groups, MPLS

CLIPS

Static CLIPS

Single and double VLANs, link groups, ATM PVC, ATM APS

ACL


QoS


HTTP-Red


LI


VoIP


Multicast applications


NAT


Flow services

Dynamic CLIPS

Single and double VLANs, CCOD, link groups, ATM PVC, ATM APS,

DHCP

DHCP server

Single and double VLANs, CCOD, link groups, ATM PVC, ATM APS

ACL


QoS


HTTP-Red


LI


VoIP


Multicast applications


NAT


Flow services

DHCP relay

Single and double VLANs, CCOD, link groups, ATM PVC, ATM APS

DHCP proxy

Single and double VLANs, CCOD, link groups, ATM PVC, ATM APS

Static

Bridge 1483

ATM PVC, ATM APS

ACL


QoS


HTTP-Red


LI


VoIP


Multicast applications


NAT


Flow services

Route 1483

ATM PVC, ATM APS

IPoE

Single and double VLANs

3.4   Other Ericsson Solutions

The router can also be used in other Ericsson solutions, such as Border Gateway Function (BGF), Converged Packet Gateway (CPG), IP Radio-Access Network (RAN), Mobile Backhaul (MBH) or Mobile Packet Backbone Network (MPBN).

For example, Figure 5 illustrates the router in a topology using IP RAN, MBH, MPBN solutions.

Figure 5   Router in IP RAN, MBH, and MPBN Solutions

Table 4 lists the features that can be configured for use with mobile solutions.

Table 4    Features Configured for Use With Mobile Solutions

Business Application

Access or Transport Technologies

Routing Options

Service Options / Features

SmartEdge and MPBN

Ethernet 802.1Q LAG


POS LAG


ML PPP LAG


Gigabit Ethernet ports


10 Gigabit Ethernet ports

MPLS and LDP or RSVP


IS-IS, OSPF, or static routing


BGP


CSPF

L2VPN


L3VPN


Inter-AS VPNs


6VPE


IPSEC VPN


VPLS


BGF


Bridging


QoS marking and queuing


BGP NH trigger


Fast-convergence


P2P interfaces


RSTP/BVI


BFD


VRRP

SmartEdge and IP RAN (also with CPG)

Ethernet dot1q LAG


ML PPP LAG


Gigabit Ethernet ports


10 Gigabit Ethernet ports

MPLS and LDP or RSTP


IS-IS, OSPF or Static routing

VRRP


BVI


ICR


IPSEC


Bridging


CES


SAToP


QoS marking and queuing


BFD

SmartEdge and MBH

Ethernet dot1q LAG


POS LAG


ML PPP LAG


Gigabit Ethernet ports


10 Gigabit Ethernet ports

MPLS and LDP or RSVP


OSPF or IS-IS


BGP


MPLS fast-reroute

L2VPN


L3VPN


VPLS


XC VLL


QoS marking and queuing


CES


SAToP


Ethernet OAM


BFD


VRRP

For information about using the router with the BGF solution see SmartEdge Border Gateway Function; and for using it with the CPG solution, see http://cpistore.internal.ericsson.com/alexserv?ac=LINKEXT&li=EN/LZN7040099R1E&FN=5_22102-AXB25020Uen.B.html

4   Features

4.1   Routing

The router supports standard network routing that moves information across an internetwork from a source to a destination, typically passing through one or more intermediate nodes along the way.

The SmartEdge OS routing table stores routes to directly attached devices, static IP routes, and routes learned dynamically from Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Constrained Shortest Path First (CSPF), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Border Gateway Protocol (BGP), and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS).

When a network event causes routes to go down or become unavailable, routers distribute routing update messages that are propagated across networks, causing a recalculation of optimal routes. Routing algorithms that converge slowly can cause routing loops or network outages. Many algorithms can quickly select next-best paths and adapt to changes in network topology.

4.1.1   Routing Protocol Support

Methods for implementing IP routing, and the supported routing protocols on the router, are described in the following sections.

4.1.1.1   Static Versus Dynamic Routing

The SmartEdge implementation of static routing involves packet forwarding on the basis of static routes configured by the system administrator. Static routes work well in environments where network traffic is predictable and network topology is relatively simple.

It also supports dynamic routing algorithms, which adjust to changing network circumstances by analyzing incoming routing update messages. RIP, OSPF, BGP, and IS-IS all use dynamic routing algorithms. A dynamic routing algorithm can also be supplemented with static routes where appropriate.

Some routing algorithms operate in a flat, hierarchy-free space, and others use routing hierarchies. In a flat routing system such as RIP, all routers are peers of all other routers. As networks increase in size, flat routing systems encounter scaling limitations. To address this, some routing protocols allow the administrator to partition the network into hierarchical levels, which facilitates the summary of topology information for anyone located outside the immediate level or area. For example, the OSPF protocol supports a two-level hierarchy in which area 0 is the backbone area that interconnects all other areas.

4.1.1.2   IGPs Versus EGPs

SmartEdge routers support Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) to optimize network performance. RIP, OSPF, and IS-IS optimize the route between points within a network.

Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGPs) support route information exchange between different networks. SmartEdge OS supports BGP-4. The choice of an optimal path is made based on the cost of the path measured by metrics associated with each link in the network.

IGPs and EGPs have slightly differing administrative designs. An IGP typically runs in an area under a single administrative control; this area is referred to as an autonomous system (AS) or a routing domain. In contrast, an EGP allows two different autonomous systems to exchange routing information and send data across the AS border. Policy decisions in EGPs can be shaped to determine which routing information crosses the border between the two autonomous systems.

The SmartEdge routers support the following routing protocols:

4.1.2   MPLS Networking

The SmartEdge OS supports MPLS to efficiently forward packets through a network. MPLS operates across an interface in an MPLS-enabled context.

In a conventional IP network, routers forward packets through the network, from one router to the next, with each router making an independent forwarding decision by analyzing the packet header; packet processing often causes considerable forwarding delay. With MPLS, the complete analysis of the packet header is performed only once, when it enters an MPLS-enabled network. For more information, see Configuring MPLS.

4.1.2.1   Label Distribution

To communicate labels and their meanings among label switched routers (LSRs), MPLS uses the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) or the label distribution protocol (LDP).

4.1.3   MPLS-Based Solutions

The router supports solutions using MPLS networks in which customer connectivity among multiple remote sites is deployed across a shared central infrastructure, and still provides the same access or security as a private network. For example, it supports L2VPNs, L3VPNs, port pseudowire (PW) connections, and Virtual Private LAN Services (VPLS) in MPLS network topologies.

4.2   BNG Features

In the SmartEdge OS, subscribers are the end users of broadband network gateway (BNG) services, which include DHCP, CLIPS, L2TP, PPP, and PPPoX models.

Subscriber records are configured as part of a context, either locally on the router or on a RADIUS server. Subscriber records contain the information necessary to bind a subscriber to the correct interface, and to the correct network context and services. Subscriber records can also contain other configuration information, such as authentication, access control, rate-limiting, and policing information. For more information, see Configuring Subscribers and the documents in the Subscriber Management folder: Configuring Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting, Configuring Bindings, Configuring IPV6 Subscriber ServicesConfiguring CLIPS, Configuring PPP and PPPoE, Configuring L2TP, Configuring RADIUS, and RADIUS Attributes.

The number of active subscribers depends on licensing, configuration, memory, processing power, and desired per-subscriber bandwidth. Each software and hardware variant has a maximum active subscriber figure, which may or may not be achieved in different deployment scenarios.

The SmartEdge OS system supports the following subscriber management services:

4.3   IP Protocol Support

The SmartEdge OS supports the following IP service protocols.

4.4   IP Services

The SmartEdge OS provides the IP services:

4.4.1   Mobile IP (Wireless) and Hotlining

Mobile IP services enable the router to act as one or more foreign agents (FAs). Each communicates with its associated home-agent (HA) peers that support mobile subscribers, which are referred to as mobile nodes (MNs). Each FA has a care-of address (CoA) that the system uses as the termination address for the tunnel to an HA peer.

The MNs connect to the FA through one or more base transceiver stations (BTSs) using Ethernet circuits. MNs can move to different BTSs, depending on their locations.

MNs communicate with the router (the FA) over Ethernet-based circuits, using a context that you configure for the FA. The system routes the MN traffic to each external HA peer using a Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) tunnel circuit or an IP-in-IP tunnel. Each HA peer uses a different tunnel. Traffic from an HA peer is routed back to the MNs associated with that HA peer using the same tunnel circuit.

Hotlining enables the SmartEdge OS to redirect subscribers to a portal controlled by a service provider. This portal can be used for service registration, updates, and service advertisements, and to address issues that require immediate attention, such as virus attacks and missed payments. When hotlining is complete, the subscriber is released from the hotlined state (released from the portal) and directed to the original destination.

For more information about Mobile IP services, see Configuring Mobile IP for a Foreign Agent, Configuring Mobile IP for a Home Agent, Configuring Hotlining for a Foreign Agent, and Configuring Hotlining for a Home Agent.

4.5   IP Service Policies

The SmartEdge OS provides the following IP service policies:

4.6   Quality of Service

The Internet provides only best-effort service, offering no guarantees packet delivery. The SmartEdge router offers QoS differentiation based on traffic type and application.

4.6.1   Configuring QoS on Circuits

You can attach both metering (ingress) and policing (egress) policies to the following:

For details on configuring ports, channels, circuits, subscribers, and link groups for QoS, see Configuring Circuits for QoS.

4.6.2   Rate-Limiting and Class-Limiting

The SmartEdge OS classifies, marks, and rate-limits incoming packets:

4.6.3   Queueing and Scheduling

After classification, marking, and rate-limiting occurs on an incoming packet, the packet enters an output queue for servicing by an egress traffic card’s scheduler.

The SmartEdge OS supports up to eight queues per circuit. Queues are serviced according to a queue map scheme, a QoS scheduling policy, or both.

For more information about traffic engineering using queueing and scheduling, see Configuring Queuing and Scheduling.

4.6.4   Flow Admission Control

A flow is a unidirectional object that identifies related data packets and enables you to apply a set of services to a portion of a circuit. Without flows, you could only apply services to an entire group of subscriber traffic mapped to a separate circuit. All attributes on a flow inherit from the services applied to the circuit to which the flow applies.

All attributes applied using flow features reside in a flow admission control (FAC) profile, which is the basic unit of flow configuration. You create a FAC profile and then apply it to an existing circuit in circuit configuration mode.

For more information about flow admission control, see Configuring Flow Admission Control.

4.7   Application Traffic Management

When implemented with an ASE card and properly configured, the router can apply control policies to types of application traffic. When the router detects application traffic, it applies a DPI traffic management policy that classifies and maps it to one or more classes. Depending on the traffic control levels that you configure, each class is associated with a set of actions that applies to all traffic mapping for that class. You can apply classes to traffic associated with individual subscribers, groups of subscribers, or all the subscribers managed by a router. For more information, see Application Traffic Management Configuration and Operation.


5   System Architecture

Figure 6 illustrates the SmartEdge OS architecture.

Figure 6   SmartEdge OS Architecture

6   Router Components

The SmartEdge OS running on the XCRP controller cards performs route processing and other control functions. Packet forwarding is performed in collaboration with Packet Processing ASICs (PPAs) on the individual traffic cards.

6.1   SmartEdge OS

Figure 7 illustrates the SmartEdge OS software component relationships.

Figure 7   SmartEdge OS Software Component Interrelationships

6.2   Contexts

Most networking products are designed so that the entire set of ports, circuits, and protocols operate together as one global instance. The SmartEdge OS supports an advanced feature called multiple contexts. Each context is a virtual router instance running within a single physical device. A context operates as a separate routing and administrative domain, with separate routing protocol instances, addressing, authentication, accounting, and so on, and does not share this information with other contexts. By separating the address and name spaces in this way, you can use multiple contexts to provide direct access to customers, or to provide different classes of services for customers. You use a single physical device to implement this, with one or more contexts assigned to each service provider or service class. Implementing this with equipment from other vendors requires multiple devices.

The router is always configured with the special local context. This context is always present on the system and cannot be deleted. In a single-context configuration, the local context is the only context on the system.

6.3   Interfaces

The concept of an interface in the SmartEdge OS differs from that in traditional networking devices. In traditional devices, the term interface is often used synonymously with port, channel, or circuit, which are physical entities. In the SmartEdge OS, an interface is a logical construct that provides higher-layer protocol and service information, such as Layer 3 addressing. Interfaces are configured as part of a context and are independent of physical ports, channels, and circuits. The decoupling of the interface from the physical layer entities enables many of the advanced features offered by the SmartEdge OS.

For the higher-layer protocols to become active, an interface must be associated with a physical port, channel, or circuit. This association is referred to as a binding in the SmartEdge OS. For more information, see Section 6.6.

6.4   Ports, Channels, and Circuits

Ports, channels, and circuits in the SmartEdge OS represent the physical connectors and paths on the SmartEdge traffic and controller cards. Physical port, channel, and circuit configurations include both hardware and software parameters that allow the behavior of the port, channel, or circuit to be specified for a specific router.

Before any higher-layer user data can flow through a physical port, channel, or circuit, that port, channel, or circuit must be associated with an interface within a context. This association is referred to as a binding in the SmartEdge OS. The configuration for each port, channel, and circuit includes binding information. For more detailed information on ports, channels, and circuits, see Configuring ATM, Ethernet, and POS Ports, Configuring Cards, and Configuring Circuits.

6.5   Cross-Connections

The SmartEdge OS supports cross-connections that perform Layer 2 switching in the router; this is also referred to as a bypass. In cross-connection, the forwarding process switches an ATM or 802.1Q packet on an ingress circuit to an egress circuit, and performs actions on the Layer 2 header, which can include stripping or preserving the original header or adding new Layer 2 headers, according to the configuration of the PVC. For more information, see Configuring Cross-Connections.

6.6   Bindings

Bindings form the association in the SmartEdge OS between the ports, channels, or circuits and the higher-layer routing protocols configured for a context. No user data can flow on a port, channel, or circuit until some higher-layer service is configured and associated with it. After a port, channel, or circuit is bound to an interface, traffic flows through the context as it would through any IP router. For more information, see Configuring Bindings.

Bindings are either statically mapped during configuration or dynamically created based on subscriber characteristics defined in the local database, or on a RADIUS server as described in the following sections.

With static bindings, a port, channel, or circuit is bound directly to an interface. In this case, the port, channel, or circuit is hard-wired to the higher-layer protocols defined for the interface. Multiple ports, channels, or circuits can be bound to a single interface.

Dynamic binding occurs when a circuit is bound to the higher-layer protocols based on session information. For example, a PPP-encapsulated session can be bound to a particular context and interface by examining the authenticated structured subscriber name in the form sub-name@ctx-name.

6.7   Bridges

The SmartEdge OS supports transparent, self-learning bridges (as described in IEEE 802.1D) that support restricted (very secure) circuits. Bridging on the router is context-specific, and a context can support multiple bridges. Circuits that can be bridged include Ethernet ports with 802.1D or 802.1Q encapsulation, 802.1Q permanent virtual circuits (PVCs), and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) PVCs with RFC 1483 bridged encapsulation. IP- and Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)-encapsulated circuits cannot be bridged; however, bridging of IP over Ethernet (IPoE)-encapsulated circuits and PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE)-encapsulated circuits is supported at the medium access control (MAC) layer. The router implements the Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) and MAC moves monitoring to provide path redundancy and prevent bridging loops. Additional information on RSTP is available in IEEE 802.1d and IEEE 802.1w (RSTP is not supported over ATM). In addition, the SmartEdge OS supports Virtual Private LAN Service (VPLS) to provide Ethernet bridging over MPLS pseudowires. For more information, see Configuring Bridging.

6.8   Tunnels

The SmartEdge OS supports the following tunnel types:

7   System Processes

7.1   Independent System Processes

Implementation of the major software components as independent processes provides several benefits:

The separation of the route processing and control functions (performed by the SmartEdge OS software running on the controller card) from the forwarding function (performed on the individual traffic cards) also provides several benefits:

7.2   SmartEdge OS Processes

The SmartEdge OS major system components run as separate processes; see Table 5 for some examples.

Table 5    SmartEdge OS Processes

Module

Descriptions

Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)

Manages IPv4 IP-to-MAC address resolution for ARP as described by RFC 826. IP ARP and XC ARP are supported, storing ARP entries in a database residing on the control plane. XC ARP is used for interworking cross-connects to manage MAC information for the Layer 2 portions of bypass connection.

Chassis Management (CM)

Manages system, card, port configuration, card/port state event communication, alarm reporting, hardware diagnostics, and hardware state retrieval.

Interface and Circuit State Manager (ISM)

Monitors and disseminates the state of all interfaces, ports, and circuits in the system.

Line Cards

Includes the PPA ASICs, which contain the Forwarding Information Base (FIB) and perform forwarding functions.

ND

The ND process provides five main functions, chiefly for IPv6 address resolution:


  • Address resolution

  • Stateless Address Auto-Configuration (SLAAC)

  • Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)

  • Neighbor Unreachability Detection (NUD)

  • Multibind IPv6 and dual-stack subscriber support


ND is supported on multiple link types, including Ethernet, trunk LAG, access LAG, L2TP LNS tunnels, and ATM.

Process Manager (PM)

Monitors and controls the operation of the other processes in the system.

Quality of Service (QoS)

Provides different priorities to different applications, users, or data flows, and enforces forwarding throughput limits in individual data flows and aggregations of flows. Implements resource reservation control (RSVP) mechanisms and configures forwarding that implements QoS.

Router Configuration Module (RCM)

Controls all system configurations using a transaction-oriented database.

Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

Performs monitoring and management of network devices using the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Communicates trap and inform notifications and manages SNMP requests according to the Management Information Bases (MIBs).

Many more feature processes run as independent processes. For examples, see the following sections.

7.3   Layer 2 Processes

7.3.1   Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Process

The Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) process manages ATM circuits. These include explicitly configured PVCs (and ranges of PVCs), as well as PVCs created on demand. Unlike Ethernet circuits, ATM circuits do not only handle PPA management, but also segmentation and reassembly (SAR) management. The ATM process supports circuit creation on demand (CCOD) and the following encapsulations:

7.3.2   Bridge Process

The Bridge process handles bridge-related configurations (used to configure the forwarding plane) such as defining circuits belonging to a bridge instance, communicating configured bridge-related routes to RIB, and setting bridge instance attributes such as:

The bridge process also participates in RSTP PDU exchanges (termination/origination) with other RSTP-enabled bridges and switches in the network.

7.3.3   dot1q (802.1Q) Process

The dot1q (802.1Q) process manages circuits with 802.1Q single and double-tagged encapsulation. These include explicitly configured circuits and circuit ranges, as well as circuits created on demand. For double-tagged packets, there may be a circuit corresponding to both tags, or to just the outer tag (a tunnel).

7.3.4   Tunnel Manager Process

The tunnel process implements “soft” tunnels in the SmartEdge OS; adding only an encapsulation without a tunnel entry endpoint in the forwarding plane. Handles tunnels according to the next-hop types in the FIB, including:

Unlike these tunnels, L2TP tunnel functionality is managed by the L2TP process.

7.3.5   Cross-Connect (XC) Process

Manages cross-connections, running on the active XCRP card. It communicates statically configured cross-connects to the forwarding plane in such a way that a packet received on an ATM or 802.1Q PVC on ingress is switched to a particular egress circuit. The Layer 2 cross-connect feature in the SmartEdge OS enables Layer 2 switching between the following types of permanent virtual circuits (PVCs):

7.4   BNG Processes

BNG functions are managed by modules, such as the following samples.

7.4.1   Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA) Process

AAA performs authentication, authorization, and accounting of subscribers, tunnels, and circuits and the following tasks:

7.4.2   Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Process

DHCP passes configuration information to hosts on a TCP/IP network. DHCP is based on the Bootstrap protocol (BOOTP), adding the capability of automatic collection of reusable network addresses and additional configuration options.

The SmartEdge router provides three types of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) support:

The internal DHCP server is also used for Clientless IP Service Selection (CLIPS), interacting with the CLIPS daemon to appropriately configure the forwarding plane.

7.4.3   Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) Process

L2TP process facilitates the tunneling of PPP packets across an intervening network.

7.4.4   Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Process

The PPP process manages PPP subscriber sessions, including packet forwarding and handling PPP-related configuration and show commands.

7.4.5   PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) Process

PPPoE transmits PPP traffic over Ethernet connections and learns the Ethernet address of the remote peer, and establishes a unique session identifier for all packets.

7.5   Routing Processes

On the SmartEdge router, route information is collected from the different routing protocols in the routing information base (RIB) (on the XCRP controller card), which calculates the best routes and downloads them to the forwarding information base (FIB) on the line cards.

Figure 8 illustrates the routing information flow.

Figure 8   Routing Information Flow

7.5.1   Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Process

The RIP module implements RIP Version 2 as documented in RFC 1388. It also implements RIPv2 over a multibind interface, which is a SmartEdge OS proprietary feature.

7.5.2   Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) Process

The BGP process is responsible for installing both IPv4 and IPv6 routes in the RIB, installing Multicast Distribution Tree (MDT) routes into PIM, and downloading MPLS labels allocated by BGP to the Label Manager (LM).

7.5.3   Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) Process

IS-IS performs the IS-IS routing protocol functions, including providing routes to the RIB and handling IS-IS configuration, show, and debug commands.

7.5.4   Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Process

The OSPF process performs OSPF functions, including the following:

7.5.5   Routing Information Base (RIB) Process

Running on the active XCRP, the RIB process is one of the most fundamental processes in the SmartEdge OS, RIB directly impacts how packets flow in and out of the box because it configures the routing tables in the forwarding plane and connectivity to the management interface. The RIB process is responsible for collecting routes from its clients, selecting the best path, and downloading the routes to each line card's forwarding information base (FIB). See Figure 8 for a diagram of RIB-related information flow.

The RIB process interacts with other SmartEdge OS modules, including the following:

7.5.6   Multicast Processes

The Multicast manager process collects multicast groups and forwarding data from the PIM, IGMP, and MSDP processes, and forwards it to the line cards. It also logs multicast events.

Figure 9 illustrates the Multicast information flow.

Figure 9   Multicast Information Flow

7.5.6.1   Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP) Process

The IGMP process manages IGMPv3 (as described in RFC 3376) and IGMPv2 (as described in RFC 2236). On SmartEdge OS interfaces, the process determines which IP multicast groups and, for IGMPv3, which sources have listeners on the network attached to the interface. Collected information is provided to Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) to be advertised to other multicast routers.

7.5.6.2   Multicast Source Discovery Protocol (MSDP) Process

The MSDP process manages MSDP as described in RFC 3618, advertising (S,G) entries (for groups that use a particular source address) from one PIM-SM domain to another. If the MSDP peer receiving the Source Advertisement (SA) is the Rendezvous Point (RP) for the (S,G) and there are receivers in the domain, it adds itself to the multicast distribution tree.

7.5.6.3   Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) Process

The PIM process maintains multicast information per group and per interface in the Multicast Forwarding Information Base (MFIB), which is downloaded to the Multicast Manager for installation on the line cards.

7.5.7   Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) Processes

The MPLS process enables MPLS forwarding by downloading LSP configuration to the line cards.

Figure 10 illustrates the MPLS label information flow.

Figure 10   MPLS Label Information Flow

7.5.8   Label Manager (LM) Process

The LM process manages label requests and reservations from various MPLS protocols such as LDP and RSVP, and configures LSPs and PWs in the system. It installs LSPs and Layer 2 routes in the RIB and provisions MPLS-related data structures in the forwarding plane. It also handles MPLS-related configurations and functionality such as MPLS ping and traceroute. L2VPN functionality is handled in the LM process including configuration and PW setup. VPLS PWs and VLLs use a common framework for PW establishment.

7.5.9   LDP Process

The LDP process creates MPLS labels based on OSPF and IS-IS routes. It installs LSPs in LM and registers labels, routes, and prefixes in the RIB. The Update process sends LDP updates to neighbors.

7.5.10   RSVP Process

The RSVP process implements RSVP (as described in RFC 3031, RFC 3032, RFC 3209, and RFC 4090), providing LSPs to the LM process. It queries RIB for outgoing interfaces and next-hop information and registers BFD sessions in the RIB.

7.5.11   MPLS-Static Process

The MPLS-Static process manages static LSP configuration on the router (when serving as an ingress Label Edge Router (ingress-LER), a Label Switching Router (LSR), or egress LER) and communicates the details to the LM process.

7.6   Forwarding Process

SmartEdge OS forwarding is implemented on the set of installed line cards (each with a unique slot number), which perform both ingress and egress functions. The Forwarding process on each line card performs packet processing functions such as Forwarding Information Base (FIB) lookup for the longest prefix match with the destination IP address, and QoS classification for both fast data traffic and slower control traffic, such as ICMP, VRRP, or BFD messages.

7.7   System Redundancy and Synchronization

The router supports dual Cross-Connect Route Processor (XCRP) controller cards; one controller card acts as the active controller, and the other acts as its hot standby.

Both controller cards contain compact-flash cards that store the operating system image, its associated files, and the configuration database. A synchronization process ensures that the standby XCRP card is always ready to become the active XCRP card:

To guard against system inconsistency, the synchronization process is protected during system load and XCRP card reload. At that time, while the synchronization is in progress, switchover from the active to the standby XCRP card is not allowed. If the active card should fail during synchronization, the standby XCRP card does not become active. If the user attempts to force a switchover during this synchronization period, the system warns the user that the standby is not ready. However, during the normal running state, an XCRP card switchover can occur at any time, and the standby XCRP card has the data required to take the active role.

The synchronization process is not affected by traffic card installation and removal. The active XCRP card continues to forward control traffic and detect and notify the administrator of any faults that occur while the standby XCRP card is being synchronized (the FAIL LED is blinking).

After the synchronization is complete, the standby controller is ready to become the active controller card if the active card fails.

Besides redundant XCRP controller cards, the router also supports many other redundancy features, including:

8   User Interface

The router provides three interfaces to access, manage, and configure the SmartEdge OS, as well as access node state information:

For information about configuring the router using NetOp EMS, see the NetOp EMS Library.

For information about using SNMP to manage the router, see Configuring RMON and SNMP.

The primary user interface to the SmartEdge OS is the CLI, which can be accessed as follows:

We recommend that you have two access methods available, such as a remote workstation connected to the Ethernet management port and a remote console terminal with connection to a terminal server. Many administrative tasks should be carried out from the CLI when connected through a terminal server, because some processes, such as reloading or upgrading the software, may sever an Ethernet management port connection.

8.1   Command Modes and Prompts

In the SmartEdge CLI, the two primary modes are exec and global configuration. When a session is initiated, the CLI is set to the exec mode by default. The exec mode allows you to examine the state of the system and perform most monitoring, troubleshooting, and administration tasks using a subset of the available CLI commands.

Exec mode prompts can be one of the following forms, depending on the user privilege level (see Section 8.3).

[local]hostname# 

[local]hostname>

In this example, local is the context in which commands are applied and hostname is the currently configured hostname of the router. When you exit exec mode using the exit command, the entire CLI session ends.

Global configuration mode is the top-level configuration mode; all other configuration modes are accessed from this mode. These modes allow you to interactively configure the system through the CLI, or to create and modify a configuration file offline by entering configuration commands using any text editor. After you have saved the file, you can then load it to the operating system.

To access global configuration mode, enter the configure command (in exec mode).

Configuration mode prompts are of the following form:

[local]hostname(mode-name)# 

In the example, local is the context in which commands are applied, hostname is the currently configured hostname of the router, and mode-name is a string indicating the name of the current configuration mode.

The prompt (in global configuration mode), assuming the factory default hostname of Redback and the local context, is as follows:

[local]Redback(config)#

Each feature supported through the SmartEdge OS can have one or more configuration modes, some of which you access using a command (in global configuration mode). Table 6 lists the configuration modes for the commands described in this document and the commands that you enter to access them.

8.2   Command Mode Hierarchy

Command modes exist in a hierarchy. You must access the higher-level command mode before you can access a lower-level command mode in the same chain. As an example, Figure 11 shows the hierarchy of the command modes used to configure some basic system features.

For the modes required for specific commands, see the command in Command List.

Figure 11   Command Mode Hierarchy for Basic System Commands

Table 6 lists a sample of the command modes (in alphabetical order) for the SmartEdge basic system features. This is not a comprehensive list and is provided only as a sample. For more information about the command modes, see Command List.

Table 6    Basic System Features: Command Modes and System Prompts

Mode Name

Commands Used to Access

Command-Line Prompt

exec

(user logon)

# or >

administrator

administrator command from context configuration mode

(config-administrator)#

ATM OC

port atm command from global configuration mode

(config-atm-oc)#

ATM profile

atm profile command from global configuration mode

(config-atm-profile)#

bulkstats

bulkstats policy command from context configuration mode

(config-bulkstats)#

context

context command from global configuration mode

(config-ctx)#

dot1q profile

dot1q profile command from global configuration mode

(config-dot1q-profile)#

Frame Relay profile

frame-relay profile from global configuration mode

(config-fr-profile)#

global

configure command from exec mode

(config)#

interface

interface command from context configuration mode

(config-if)#

macro

macro command from global configuration mode

(config-macro)#

netOp

netop command from global configuration mode

(config-netop)#

port

port channelized oc-12, port ethernet, and port pos commands from global configuration mode

(config-port)#

snmp server

snmp server command from global configuration mode

(config-snmp-server)#

software license

software license command from global configuration mode

(config-license)#

stats-collection

stats-collection command from global configuration mode

(config-stats-collect)#

STM-1

port channelized-stm1 command from global configuration mode

(config-stm1)#

subscriber

subscriber command from context configuration mode

(config-sub)#

For initial configuration of a router, see Performing Basic Configuration Tasks, Managing Configuration Files, Configuring Contexts and Interfaces, Configuring Cards, Configuring ATM, Ethernet, and POS Ports, and Configuring Subscribers.

For configuring other SmartEdge features, see the configuration files in the SmartEdge OS library Operation and Maintenance > Configuration Management folder.

For more information about using CLI commands, see Using the CLI and for information about specific commands, see the Command List.

8.3   Privilege Levels

The SmartEdge OS supports 16 different privilege levels for administrators and commands. By default, administrators are assigned an initial privilege level of 6; administrators can only issue commands that are assigned at the same level as their own privilege level or lower than their privilege level. Each command in the CLI is assigned a default privilege level. At a privilege level of 6 or higher, the prompt in the CLI displays a number sign (#) instead of an angle bracket (>).

There are three types of administrators:

When setting up users on the system, the administrator assigns privilege levels to each of the users. If no level is assigned, the default is 6. Users can then access any command at or below their assigned privilege level.

An administrator authenticated to the local context, with appropriate administrator privileges, can configure all functions on the router, including functions for each context and global entities, such as ports, port profiles, SNMP, and so on. Nonlocal administrators have no configuration mode privileges and have restricted exec mode privileges.

To configure administrator privilege levels, see Configuring Contexts and Interfaces.

Each command has a default privilege level (15 for administrators, who can do anything) that determines who can enter the command. The majority of commands (in exec mode) have a default privilege level of 3, while commands in any configuration mode have a default privilege level of 10. Exceptions are noted in parentheses ( ) in the Command Mode section in any command description; for example, “exec (15)”.

Command privilege levels are configurable; to change the default privilege level for a command, see Restricting Access to the CLI.

8.4   No and Default Forms of Commands

Many configuration commands support the no keyword. Entering the no keyword in front of a command disables the function or removes the command from the configuration. For example, to create a message that is displayed after a user logs on to the system, enter the banner exec command (in global configuration mode). To subsequently disable the command from the configuration, enter the no banner exec command (in global configuration mode).

Many configuration commands support the default keyword. Entering the default keyword in front of a command returns a parameter or feature to the default state.

9   Administration

The router has many features for managing security and performance and monitoring and reporting on status, and troubleshooting the system.

For information on data collection when submitting a customer service request (CSR) to Technical Support, see Data Collection Guideline for the SmartEdge Router.

9.1   Managing Security

The SmartEdge OS security implementation is a multilayered strategy that provides protection at various components and modules in the system. The strategy includes the following main aspects:

For more information about SmartEdge security, see SmartEdge OS Hardening Guide in the Initial Configuration folder, the files in the Security Management folder (Configuring Key Chains, Configuring Malicious Traffic Detection and Monitoring, Configuring TACACS+, and Restricting Access to the CLI) and IPsec VPN Configuration and Operation Using the SmartEdge OS CLI

9.2   Managing Performance

To manage performance, you can use RFlow, load balancing, and SNMP.

9.2.1   RFlow

The SmartEdge OS provides RFlow for performance management. You can use RFlow to collect a variety of IP traffic statistics, which are compiled in a record that can help you understand data traffic in your network and optimize the following:

For details, see Configuring RFlow

9.2.2   Load Balancing

For performance management, the router provides load balancing for Layer 3, equal-cost mult-ipath (ECMP), and Layer 4 traffic streams, as well as between link groups and pseudowire multi-paths. For more information, see Load Balancing.

9.2.3   Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)

You can enable SNMP on the router to monitor one or more network devices from a central location. An SNMP management system includes one or more SNMP agents, an SNMP Manager, and the protocols to communicate information between the SNMP agent and manager entities such as trap notifications—for example, traps and events, Get requests, Set requests, and Management Information Bases (MIBs). You can also configure a target for collecting SNMP data.

9.3   Monitoring, Reporting, and Troubleshooting Tools

9.3.1   Logging

The SmartEdge OS contains two log buffers: main and debug. Log files must be sent to Customer Support when submitting a support request. In large installations, we recommend enabling the logging of system events to a remote syslog server that is reachable by the current context.

By default, log messages for the local context are displayed in real time on the console; nonlocal contexts are not displayed in real time on the console. To change this behavior, and display log messages in real time, use the logging console command (in context configuration mode in the context of interest). However, log messages can be displayed in real time from any telnet session using the terminal monitor command (in exec mode).

For more logging information, see Logging.

The SmartEdge OS also supports dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) crash dump data collection, if failures occur. You can enable sending core dump files to a URL using the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to save space in SmartEdge memory.

9.3.2   Statistics

To monitor router status, you can configure Bulkstats to gather large amounts of data and periodically send updates to a management station. The bulkstats feature frees both the router and the management station from the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) polling processes and minimizes the amount of memory used by the router for statistics collection. The collection of data is governed by a named bulkstats policy. Bulkstats policies are context-specific, and multiple bulkstats policies can exist for each context. A bulkstats policy defines the collection information, such as the transfer interval, the server to which the data files are sent, and the sampling interval.

For more information, see Configuring Bulkstats.

9.3.3   Reporting

The SmartEdge OS provides show commands to display most system features and functions. For example, you can use the monitoring commands in Table 7. For information about specific commands, see Command List, and for more information about using show commands, seeUsing the CLI.

For more information about using show commands to display information related to specific features, see the Configuration Management files.

Table 7    Types of Monitoring Commands

Type of Command

Example

Function

Monitor a system component

show chassis


show hardware

Displays status of cards installed in the chassis.


Displays detailed card hardware information.

 

show port perf-monitor

Displays configuration and performance statistics for one or more ports.

 

show circuit counters

Displays statistics for one or more circuits.

Monitor the status of a process and provide continuous updates

monitor process

Enter this command in exec mode.

Monitor files in memory

directory


pwd

Displays a list of files in the specified directory. Enter this command in exec mode.


Displays the current working directory. Enter this command in exec mode.

Monitor a process

show process

Displays current status of a process. Enter this command in all modes.

Display a software release or version

show release


show version

Displays release and installation information. Enter this command in all modes.


Displays the version of the currently running OS. Enter this command in all modes.

Monitor an administrator session

show privilege


show public-key

Displays the current privilege level for the current session.


Displays the public keys for an administrator.


Enter these commands in all modes.

System monitoring

show clock-source

Displays clock source information. Enter this command in all modes.

 

show configuration

Displays the configuration commands for a feature. Enter this command in all modes.

 

show memory

Displays memory statistics. Enter this command in all modes.

 

show redundancy

Displays state of the standby controller card. Enter this command in all modes.

 

show system alarm

Displays system alarms at one or more levels. Enter this command in all modes.

9.3.4   Data Collection

If you have an issue with your router, before attempting to troubleshoot, collect data to record the state of the router at the time the issue occurred. If you submit an issue to Technical Support, they will require this data for troubleshooting.

For information on data collection when submitting a customer service request (CSR) to Technical Support, see Data Collection Guideline for the SmartEdge Router.

9.3.5   Troubleshooting

For information on resolving problems with the router, see the following guides in the SmartEdge OS library Operation and Maintenance > Fault Management > Troubleshooting folder: